The story of Greek Macedonian migration and settlement in Australia, in broader terms, is similar in many ways to the process of integration experienced by other 500,000 Australian Greeks and Cypriots. The size as well as the nature of the Macedonian Greek immigration to Australia was affected by the Greek Macedonian village background, the past experience of Macedonian immigrants in other Balkan and central European countries since the 15th century and the Australian immigration restrictions imposed after the Great War. Adverse political conditions under the Ottoman rule (until 1913), frequent wars and the Greco-Bulgarian rivalry for the espousal of the Slavophone population in Macedonia caused the migration to Australia. Tamis (1994:336ff) estimates that the total number of Greek Macedonians who settled in Australia during the periods 1924-1939 and 1953-1975 is approximately 135,000. Large scale male immigration paradoxically commenced when Australian states imposed immigration quotas in an attempt to secure available jobs for the Anglo Australians. Notwithstanding the socioeconomic and political conditions that prevailed in Macedonian early in the 20th century, the main variants which strongly affected pre-War immigration were the particular province, age, gender, marital status and occupation of the prospective Macedonian immigrant. They were mainly illiterate peasants, between twenty and thirty years old, with no particular skills or trade.  Some of them had been immigrants to the USA and Canada. Most Slavophones, being in their twenties, had a sound knowledge of the Greek language, having had the opportunity to attend some grades in the local schools and serve in the Greek army.  By 1925, the composition of the Macedonian population in Australia had changed drastically with the arrival of hundreds of immigrants from Kozani, which was purely Greek speaking. They were mainly from the large rural centres of Kozani, such as Pentalofos, Vythos, Grevena, Siatistas and Eratyra. In fact, the Greek speaking Macedonian immigrants during the pre-war era constituted the majority of all Macedonians immigrants to Victoria. Macedonian Greek immigration was influenced immensely by the fact that it was based on kinship, family values and loyalties. Pioneer immigrants had no choice but to follow the settlement and occupational patterns selected by th senior members of the family, to follow professions that had been followed by the pioneering settlers of their family and to safeguard the customs and tradition of their village of origin. Many young Macedonian Greek immigrants remained unmarried out of family obligation toward the single sisters that they left in the old country, while some decided to marry in order to provide a family environment and yo look after their elderly parents. The formation of crowded communes in farm-houses and houses in the inner suburban areas of Melbourne and Perth (1924-1935) and in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide...