Over the last 28 years the A.I.M.S has produced its inaugural collective volume entitled Macedonian Hellenism (1991) depicting the history, culture, religion, art and literary tradition of the region of Macedonia, Greece; another collective volume on the History of Ancient Macedonia (1995) was produced by eminent scholar and academic Peter Connor of the University of Melbourne under the title 1995: Ancient Macedonia: An Australian Symposium, Mediterranean Archaeology, Sydney; a third collective volume was produced five years by academics and scholars Roger Scott and John Bourke of the University of Melbourne: Byzantine Macedonia, Identity, Image and History (2000), Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, Melbourne. The fourth volume was produced by the same authors under the title: Byzantine Macedonia: Art, Architecture, Music and Hagiography(2001), NCHSR, La Trobe University. In 2005, scholars Panos Gongidis and Kalliroe Katsigiannis of the National Centre for Hellenic Studies and Research produced as short history on Macedonia for the needs of the students in Australian schools, entitled: Alexander the Great, NCHSR, La Trobe University, Melbourne. A large number of articles in refereed journals and chapters were also compiled by scholars comprising the Board of the Institute (see below). A monograph on the migration and settlement experience of the Macedonian Hellenes was produced in 1994 attracting the award of Academy of Athens under the title Immigration and Settlement of Macedonian Greeks in Australia, La Trobe University Press, Melbourne.
A. Collective Volumes
1. A. M. Tamis (ed.) 1990: Macedonian Hellenism, River Seine Press, Melbourne. This collective volume of 395 pages incorporating 32 articles trace the Greek origins of the people who inhabited Macedonia from earliest antiquity through to modern times. Macedonians, although culturally and economically less advanced than other Greeks for part of their distant part, have nonetheless been enshrined in Greek history for over four millennia. Two important themes are explored in detail: the ethnic identity of Macedonians (based on cultural attributes, historical legacies, perceived ancestry and linguistic considerations) and the past and present interactions between Macedonian Greeks and their neighbours.
The Book is divided into Five Chapters: archaeology with the sound contributions of Prof. D. Pantermalis and Prof. P. Connor; history, politics and international law with the works of N.G. Ashton, S.L. Parkinson, J. K. Hassiotis, E. Kofos, A. Kyriacou-Xanthopoulou, M. Hatzopoulos, A. Stavridis-Zafraka, I. Papandrianos, A. Angelopoulos, A. Tounda-Fergadi, K. Manolopoulou-Varvitsioti, B. Kondis; anthropology and culture with the contributions K. Romaios, A. Bibis-Papaspyropoulou, K. Pyrzas, P. Kavakopoulos and S. A. Papathemelis; linguistics with the treatises of A. Tsopanakis, G. Babiniotis, N. Katsanis, D. Delopoulos; literature and immigration with the essays of G. Kehagioglou, V. Hatzigeorgiou-Hassiotis, C.N. Fifis, G. Kanarakis, Con Castan and A. M. Tamis; Macedonian art with the papers of N. Nikonanos, E. Georgiadis-Koundoura, K. Loverdou-Tsigarida and E.N. Tsigaridas.
2. Peter Connor, 1995: Ancient Macedonia: An Australian Symposium, Mediterranean Archaeology, Sydney.
This publication of 135 pages which were devoted to the renowned historian Nicholas Hammond incorporates a monumental introduction by Professor Nicholas Hammond on Macedonia before Philip, and the chapters on Ancient Macedonians by Eugene Borza (University of Pennsylvania), Peter Londey (The War Memorial Museum, Canberra), Elizabeth Baynham (University of Newcastle), Ian Worthington (University of Tasmania), Ian Sharples (University of Western Australia), Leah McKenzie (University of Melbourne), Graeme W. Clark (Humanities Research Centre, ANU), Peter J. Connor (University of Melbourne), Minor M. Markle (University of New England) and Greg H.R. Horsley (University of New England).
3. Roger Scott and John Burke (eds.), 2000: Byzantine Macedonia, Identity, Image and History, Australian Association for Byzantine Studies, Melbourne.
This publication of the AIMS comprises 232 pages presents the following chapters: Thessaloniki and Macedonia in the Byzantine period by Angeliki E. Laiou of Harvard University; Macedonians and Macedonia in Byzantine spatial thinking by Johannes Koder of Vienna University; the Macedonians of the Byzantine period by Ioannis Tarnanidis of the University of Thessaloniki; the Image of Macedonia as found in Byzantine historians by Johannes Irmscher of Berlin University; the beginnings and origins of the ‘Macedonian’ dynasty by Andreas Schminck of Frankfurt University; Macednians in Eleventh and twelfth century Byzantine historiography by Dion C. Smythe of King’s College London; Macdonia as reflected in the epistolography of the fourteenth century by Apostolos Karpozilos of the University of Ioannina; the καθ’ ημάς γλώσσα in the Mauros’ and Kouber’s episode by Marthe Grigoriou-Ioannidou of the University of Thessaloniki; the importance of Macedonian during the Byzantine era by Dionyssia Myssiou of the University of Thessaloniki; Philip and Alexander Macedon in the literature of the Palaiologan era by Athanasios Karathanassis of the University of Thessaloniki; the Government of the late Roman city with special reference to Thessaloniki by J.H. W. G. Liebeschuetz of the University of Nottingham; the development of the theme organization in Macedonia by Alkmene Stavridou-Zafraka of the University of Thessaloniki; two archbishops of Achrida (Ochrid) and their significance for Macedobnian’s secular and church history: Theophylaktos and Denetrios Chomatenos by Gerhard Podskalsky of Frankfurt University; Classical Greek heritage in the epistles of Theofylaktos of Achrida by Demetrios Constantelis of Richard Stockton College, New Jersey; The Athonides and their neighbours in Macedonia in the tenth and eleventh centuries by Rosemary Morris of Manchester University’ Clergy and laity “opponents” in claims for privileges and land from the twelfth to the fourteenth century by Triantafyllitsa Maniati-Kokkini of the University of Thessaloniki; Manuel Komnenos’ Macedonian military camps: a glamorous alterative court by Michael Jeffreys of the University of Sydney; Western Macedonia in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by V, Nerantzi-Varmazi of the University of Thessaloniki; The economy of Byzantine Macedonia in the Palaiologan period by Angeliki E. Laiou of Harvard University.
4. Roger Scott and John Burke (eds.), 2001: Byzantine Macedonia: Art, Architecture, Music and Hagiography, NCHSR, La Trobe University.
This is a 254 pages publication incorporating 15 chapters on the art, architecture, music and hagiography of Byzantine Macedonia with an introduction by Prof. Roger Scott and John Burke. The chapters include the contributions of Prof. Eutychia Kourkoutidou on Early Christian wall mosaics in Macedonia; Professor Aristotle Mentzos on Early Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture in Pieria; Panyiotis Vokotopoulos on Remarks on the typology of Middle Byzantine churches in Macedonia; Ploutarchos Theocharidis on Observations on the Byzantine buttressed towers of Macedonia; E. N. Tsigaridas on Artistic activity on Mt. Athos: Monumental painting in the Byzantine period (963-1453); Chrysanthi Mavropoulou-Tsioumis on Monumental painting in Macedonia during the Middle Byzantine period; Evangelos Kyriakoudis on the Main features of monumental painting in Macedonia in the late Byzantine period; Constantine Charalampidis on the Iconography of military saints in Middle and Late Byzantine Macedonia; Gojko Subotic on Two Centres of painting in the fourteenth century: Ochrid and Kastoria- monuments, workshops and style; Pirros Thomo on Byzantine Monuments on Great Prespa; Panagiotis Panagiotidis on Byzantine and Post-Byzantine musical manuscripts of Mt. Athos and their importance in modern research; Antonios Alygizakis n the Philosophical and Theological background of music in Byzantium; Anna Karamanidou on the Saints of Macedonia: A Research Program of the Centre for Byzantine Studies in Thessaloniki; Panteleimon-Goerge Tsorbatzoglou on the ‘Megalopolis of Thessaloniki’ and its world according to the hagiographical texts of the Middle Byzantine Period.
The publications also incorporates a rich collection of illustrations and figures which are related to the content of the various chapters.
5. P. Gogidis and K. Katsigiannis (2005) (eds.) Alexander the Great, NCHSR, La Trobe University, Melbourne.
The publication depicts in a very synoptical but concise way the history of Macedonia blending the content with impr4essive illustrations and maps. The book incorporates the following sections: Alexander the Great; the region and the people; king Philip II, Father of Alexander the Great; Olympias, mother of Alexander; the early years; His teachers, Aristotle; Diogenis the Cynical; the beginning of the Great Adventure, the War against the Persians; the Battle at Granicus River (334BC); the Battle at Issus (333 BC); the Conquering of Phoenicia, Palestine and Egypt; the Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC); Alexander in India (327 BC); The Return (326 BC); the End (323 BC); Alexander’s Achievements; The successors (Epigonoi); the Hellenistic Period (323-31 BC); Roman-Byzantine Period; Alexander the Great in Myth.
6. A. M. Tamis, 1994, Immigration and Settlement of Macedonian Greeks in Australia, La Trobe University Press, Melbourne.
This is a 387-page award winning volume on Greek Macedonian and Macedoslav migration and settlement in Australia, depicting the patterns of occupation and settlement, the model and structure of the social organizations, the level and degree of integration and the ideological strife emerging from historical, political and socio-economics reasons. The volume discusses and analyses the concepts of language, religion and ethnic identity, outlines the defined legacies among the people, intra- and inter-community relations, the Greco-Yugoslavian relations, the emergence of the enthnogenesis amongst those Macedoslavs of former pro-Greek and pro-Bulgarian dogmas. The book received the first award in letters by the Academy of Athens in 1995.
The monograph is comprised of five chapters and included a Forward by the renowned Professor of Economic History, Prof. E.T. Appleyard of the University of Western Australia and Director of the Centre for Migration and Development Studies, who characterised the book “one of the main references in Australia and elsewhere on the adaptation of an important ethnic group”, and he concludes:
“Dr. Tamis shows that the issues which caused so much altercation were not trivial but centred on long-standing regional (and intra-regional) differences that had been forged in the homeland. His results will almost certainly be challenged, but the salient feature of this book is the author’s ability to not only carefully document his results, where this has been possible, but also to remain refreshingly neutral and let the ‘facts speak for themselves’.
Despite the enormous influence of migration in shaping post-war Australian society, the number of high quality publications on the settlement of ethnic groups is surprisingly small. This book is one of those on that select list. The catalogue of prejudices against newcomers, much of it actually facilitated by government policy, is well documented; the complex rivalries between groups within communities is shown to cause frequent changes in the name of associations and their leadership; the importance of the existence of a substantial number of pre-war compatriots for the adaptation of post-war Macedonian Greeks is a unique feature of the history; and their contribution to erecting Canberra’s public buildings, followed by road construction in the district and the production of eucalyptus oil, are only a few of the many faces of adaptation and achievement explored by Dr. Tamis…”
The First Chapter entitled ‘Macedonia and Macedonians’ offers the geographical and historical setting and discusses the emigration prior to liberation from the Ottoman rule; The Second Chapter ‘Immigration and Settlement of Greeks in Australia’ outlines the immigration perspective and the pioneer settlements in every Australian States and territories within the wider framework of Greek migration and settlement and the socio-economic organization of the Greek communities in Australia; The Third Chapter under the title ‘Settlement of Macedonian Greeks in Australia’ portrays the appearance and the organization of the post-WWII Greek Macedonian brotherhoods, the post-war immigration and settlement from Macedonia, the Greek Macedonian press and sporting clubs in Australia; The Fourth Chapter entitled ‘Settlement of Macedoslavs in Australia’ refers to the Macedoslav communities in Australian the role of the former Yugoslav governments, the Macedonian question in Australia and the ecclesiastic strife amongst the canonical and non-canonical Orthodox churches; the Fifth Chapter depicts the conclusions and the implications.
c. Chapters and Articles in Refereed Journal
A wide list of articles and chapters by researchers and academics members of the AIMS, as well as scholars who were affiliated as friends of the AIMS, were published over the last twenty years in collective volumes and refereed journals.
A very small selection of those publications appears here. For a more detailed account on the publications of the Institute’s members and its friends see also in the Google under G. Babiniotis, E. Kofos, A. M. Tamis, I. K. Hassiotis, Speros Vryonis Jr. et al.
1. Journal of Balkan Studies in the series entitled Playing wih History, edited by Phaedon Malingoudis, Department of Slavonic Studies, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (1997). The title of the Chapter is: Irredentism in the Macedoslav Bibliography, pp. 35-54.
This paper argues that a significant purpose for the existence and discourse of the Macedoslav bibliography is:
(1) To support the birth of a nation (ethnogenesis);
(2) To provide a point of reference for the historical, national and cultural derivation of the ‘Macedonians’ linking them to antiquity, in order to give substance to their claim of being indigenous and having a historical relation with the Balkans; and
(3) To proliferate and continue the maintenance of irredentism using it as a means to claim certain territories.
The author, Professor Anastasios M. Tamis critically discusses and analyses certain publications of the Academy of Sciences and the Arts of the National University of Methodius and Cyril, the Ministry of Education and the Institute of National History of FYROM. He also makes specific references and critically assesses the work of zealots and theorists of Macedonism (the persistent tendency and the pathological perception in characterizing any foreign legacy, culture or achievement in the region simply as “Macedonian”). The author applies a historiographic approach in his analysis.
Housman supported that to display facts accurately is a duty, but not necessarily a virtue. He believed as misleading the view that historical facts exist objectively and independently from the interpretation given to them by historians. Some of the most important historians of our century (Collingwood, 1946, Carr, 1961 and Aron, 1978) stress that history is a process of selection in regard to what are considered to have historical value. The evaluation criteria used for this by Macedoslav researchers are arbitrary and overstated, as a result of which the historiographic process is influenced and the historical facts distorted. This occurs because the ethnogenesis of the Macedoslav nation is promoted in their bibliography as a sought-after ideal and not a historical fact; the bibliography also concentrates on irredentism disregarding, selectively, ancestors and the past, and focusing on the descendants and their future.
The main characteristics of such an interventionist process, which is followed by Macedoslav researchers, are that:
(1) the historiographic approach is coded in a monistic, regulatory and grammatical way, and
(2) the basic principles governing textuality do not apply in the Macedoslav historiography. More specifically there is: (a) an intentional confusion when reference is made to chronology in the texts and a deliberate violation of the historical facts; (b) an obvious lack of cohesion and coherence of content aiming at acceptability by the readership; and (c) a manufactured intensity on information and emotion that is systematically pushed through.
- To download or read the entire Chapter: Irredentism in the Macedoslav Bibliography
2. Tamis, A. M. (1999a), “Irredentism in the Macedoslav Bibliography from a Socio-linguistic Perspective”, Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Hellenism in the 21st Century, Hellenic Studies Forum, pp. 67-84, Melbourne.
This article illustrates the socio-linguistic and historical characteristics used by the Macedoslav theorists to claim and further enhance their ethnogenesis as an independent nation in the Balkans.
- To download or read the complete article Proceedings of the Third International Conference of Hellenism in the 21st Century.
3. Kofos, E. (2009) “The Current Macedonian Issue between Athens and Skopje: Is there an Option for a Breakthrough?” on ELIAMEP Thesis (Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Politics)
Dr. Evangelos Kofos had been a consultant on Balkan Affairs at the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs and visiting fellow in Bresenose College, Oxford University and currently a senior advisor of the ELIAMEP.
This paper analyses the 16-year old Balkan diplomatic imbroglio over the name issue of the “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” (FYROM), from the UN Security Council resolution 817/1993 calling for the resolution of the issue “in the interest of maintaining peaceful and good-neighbourly relations in the region, to the communiqué of the April 2008 Bucharest NATO Summit specifying that FYROM would be admitted to the Alliance “as soon as a mutually acceptable solution to the name issue has been reached”.
Furthermore, this article initiates a discourse with the assessments and proposals of a recent report of the International Crisis Group, Macedonia’s Name: Breaking the Deadlock and attempts to clarify current Greek positions and concerns vis-à-vis the various proposals on the state name submitted by UN mediator Matthew Nimetz.
The author also submits a comprehensive proposal for dealing, in an international environment, with such sensitive issues as those affecting personal, state, regional and cultural identities.
- To download and read the article entitled: The Current Macedonian Issue between Athens and Skopje: Is there an Option for a Breakthrough?
4. Tamis, A. M. (2008) “Macedonian Identities in the Diaspora: The Case of Australia” in Vassilios Gounares, Ioannis Hassiotis and Vlassis Vlassidis (eds.) Contemporary Identities and Policies, pp. 323-369, Foundation for Macedonian Struggle, Thessalonike.
This Chapter critically assesses and analyses the Greek Macedonian identities in the Diaspora with specific reference to the Australian reality. Specific emphasis is placed on the evolution and shaping of those identities as a result of the political decisions reached in Greece during the last 17 years as the perceived outcome from a number of decisions and proposals and the actual discourse which prevailed at both the national and international levels.
Issues relevant to the survival of Hellenism in any form or shape of identity in the Diaspora are assessed differently, depending on the school of ideology and legacy from which they emerge. Those amongst the least conformists believe that there is an essential future for global Hellenism outside Greece and Cyprus, if it submits itself to a resisting process of “renewal”, which will render it capable of redefining and re-arranging the diachronic core values of the universal Hellenic ideology. Those amongst the conformists and the skeptics believe that the survival of Hellenism in the Diaspora, at intergenerational level, is a rather doubtful phenomenon in the era of global politics and global technology, given the eroding constraints of the expressive manifestations of identity, namely the culture and language loyalty.
Greek identity according to most individuals of Hellenic ancestry is manifested by means of affiliation and participation in events of “expressive” and “defensive” Greekness. It is a matter of constituency, a tension of being, becoming and participating to Greek communal institutions, language and culture. Social in terms of collectivity to which they belong and personal in terms of professional and individual life. Thus, identity is seen as fragmented and prolific, never completed as a whole, never static because of the continuous change.
Hellenic identities could be also assessed from (a) a strengths approach, supporting the powerful manifestations of Greek identity, emerging mainly from ancestry, language and religion, and/or contemporary achievements in culture, sports and other popular expressions and (b) from a cultural deprivation approach, which places the blame for damage on cultural beliefs and practices that interfere with the ability of certain Greeks in the Diaspora to achieve academic and socio-economic success. The strengths identity perceptions amid the youth of Greek ancestry in the Diaspora were profoundly enhanced during the first years of the 21st century, among other, with the emergence of Greece as a socio-economically healthy and politically stable democracy in the region, as an authority in sports with the successful organisation of the 2004 Olympic Games, with the triumphant results in competitive sports and athletics, with the overwhelming outcomes in European and World soccer, basket-ball and water polo. Furthermore, as a result of Greece’s recent role and achievements in Europe and the perceived “correctness” of the overall Greek foreign policy, more Australians are identifying with the Greek ancestry, thus drastically increasing the number of people seeking to obtain full Greek citizenship and passport. According to available data in 1981, approximately 118,000 Australians maintained their Greek citizenship, registering their weddings in Greece and retaining their legal and civil rights for themselves and their children. In 2007, the number of Greek citizens in Australia surpassed the 250,000, making Australia’s Greeks the largest and most robust community of Greek citizens residing in the Diaspora. Conversely, the damage imagery perception, which was apparent among some children of Greek immigrants during the difficult years of the stage of settlement and survival (1950-1970), following the exodus of their parents from Hellas today characterise only a very small proportion of Australians of Greek descent. These individuals, during their years of schooling and the early years of social integration, placed responsibility for lack of upward socio-economic and academic mobility on family patterns and practices, including the use of the Greek language and culture. However, they also underestimated the effects of racial discrimination, social segregation, religious intolerance, xenophobia and other important social forces and variables outside their Hellenic culture, namely in the mainstream host societies, on their socio-economic mobility.
- To download and read the Chapter: Macedonian Identities in the Diaspora: The Case of Australia.
d. Periodicals and Journals
The official Journal of the Australian Institute for Macedonian Studies is the Publication Series on Macedonia, first published in 1992. The inaugural Editorial Committee was comprised of Prof. Norman Ashton (University of Western Australia), Prof. Greg Horsley (La Trobe University), Dr. Anastasios Tamis (La Trobe University), Prof. Peter Connor (University of Melbourne), Prof. Arthur McDevitt (Monash University), Peter Gogidis (La Trobe University), Peter Vlachos and Tina Giannoukos (AIMS committee).
(i) The Myth of Irredentism and the Macedonian Question in the National Archives of Australia
The inaugural edition of the Journal published an article on the myth of irredentism of the Macedoslavs as this was derived from the analysis of the archives and records of the Australian National Archives. The paper written by Prof. A. M. Tamis reviews the intra-ethnic strife between the Greek and the Macedoslavs in Australia, commencing from the early 1930s in Perth, Western Australia. The clashes started when the Macedoslav leaders demanded a pro-Bulgarian ideology in the establishment of the Social Club, Alexander the Great, which was established by Greek Macedonian. The Bulgarophile leader of the Macedoslavs, Risto Avramoff from Polypotamos, Florina, in 1936 established in Melbourne the first branch of the Macedonian Patriotic Organization (MPO) (1936-1939) supporting the Bulgarian cause in Australia.
The author of this article depicts the Greco-Bulgarian dissention during the pre-WWII era and the Greco-Yugoslav antagonism for the identity of Macedonia during the post-WWII era. The role of the Yugoslav government on the Macedonian problem is portrayed trough the archives of the Australian secret police services, the ASIO.
Prof. Tamis argues in this article that during the 19th century the name “Makendonski” was used in distinguishing the Bulgarians of Macedonia from those of the Bulgarian principality and the Andrianople vilayet. The Greeks call themselves Makedones, the Bulgarians Makedonski and the Roma Makedoneni. The slogan, therefore, which is attributed to Goce Delcev “Macedonia to the Macedonians” clearly refers to all inhabitants of Macedonia, irrespective of ethnic origin and not to an imagined ‘Macedonian’ ethnic group.
“In Australia, the term ‘Macedonia’ and ‘Macedonian’ creates confusion, frustration and malice amongst the ethnic groups who claim the terms. Despite the fact that many speak ‘Macedonian Slavonic’ a Slav language all their own, the ethnic picture is very complex: some identify themselves as Greeks, some as Bulgarians, some as Yugoslavs and some as ‘Macedonians’” the author begins his analysis of the Macedonian problem in Australia.
- To download and read the article, which also contains a number of archival documents from the Australian National Archives: Macedonian Identities in the Diaspora: The Case of Australia, pp. 1-21.
(i) The Macedonian Bulletin (1991-1995)
The Bulletin was first published in 1991 as the information and communication organ of the Institute and was distributed to its membership and friends as well as to various Greek community organizations and benefactors. Its official Logo was the Sun of the Kings of Vergina, Macedonia, whilst its shape and its outline varied according to the events and the activities of the Centre. The Bulletin always appeared on its consistent A4 size, varying from 6 to 12 pages according to the demand of the editorial issues.
A total 21 editions was published by the editorial committee of the AIMS, depicting the activities of the Institute, important views on Macedonian issues, critical reviews on produced papers and publications on the Macedonian issue, comments and articles on various cultural and socio-political issues relevant to Macedonian Hellenism.
(ii) The Macedonian View Periodical (1988-1990 and 1999- )
The periodical entitled Makedonikos Logos [Macedonian View] was first published during the period 1988 to 1990. In 1999, the members of the AIMS decided to republish the periodical to inform the members on various issues relevant to the Macedonian issue. This periodical, despite its non-consistent publication (its publication has been temporarily ceased when the academic activities of the AIMS were transferred to the National Institute for Hellenic Studies and Research), remains in 2010 the official organ of the Institute.
In 2002, the Macedonian View was circulated as a 20-page periodical containing important editorial comments and analysis of the political events and developments. For example, vol. 3, April 2002, included a bilingual article (pp. 1-3) criticising the economic advancement of Greek business in FYROM and the broader political steps undertaken by the successive Greek governments on the content of their negotiations with the leadership of the Macedoslavs. Bilingual editorial comments on the propaganda campaign of the FYROM and their polemics and territorial claims against the sovereignty of Greece (pp. 4-8), the cultural heritage of Macedonia from the antiquity to the present day (pp. 9-10), the arrival of the Greek Maistors of the Psaltic Art and the Byzantine Choir of the University of Athens under the directorship of Prof. Grigorios Stathis (p. 11), the new publications of the AIMS (p.12), Brief comments on the Macedonian issue (p. 12), the proclamation of the Governor of the State of Alabama, Governor D. Siegelman and the response of the AIMS (pp. 13-18), an editorial comments on Cyprus and its inter-communal and international problems.
 During the last few decades the subject and the term of Diaspora has become a fashionable topic in the academy. J. Amstrong in his paper “Mobilized and Proletarian Diaspora” in the American Political Science Review (1976) defined a Diaspora as “any ethnic collectivity which lacks a territorial base within a given polity”. He drew a distinction between the term ‘mobilised” to define those ethnic groups that were compelled to move because of political pressure, while he terms “proletarians” as individuals that are migrated for financial reasons. Robin Cohen proposed five categories of Diaspora: victim, labour, trade, imperial and cultural, see in particular Global Diaspora (1997:5-18). Most definitely contrary to what some anthropologists proposed (Amstrong, 1976), who claimed that the Phanariotes constitute part of the mobilized Diasporas, the Greek emigration, with the exemption perhaps of Asia Minor catastrophe (1922), would form part of trading, cultural and labour Diaspora.
 Most Greeks in Diaspora recognize at least four basic ingredients in their Hellenic identity: the ancient Greek heritage and culture, the heritage of the Orthodox faith, the Hellenized values of the European heritage and the Byzantium enriched values of the East (I kath’ imas Anatoli).
 The term Hellenic is employed in this study to denote the Greeks and Cypriots of Hellenic ancestry and descent, irrespective of their birthplace.
 Reference is made here to the well-perceived in Diaspora as “mature” Greek foreign policy since the early 1980s towards the Arab countries and the Middle East, including Iraq and Afghanistan.
 The number of those seeking Greek citizenship is further augmented in Australia as a result of Greece’s balanced policies on terrorism allowing for the Greek nationals a safer passport against terrorism. Other reasons for a surge for Greek passport and citizenship included the free and easy access to other countries-members of the E.U. as well as commercial and economic benefits emerging from the dual citizenship.
 The term Hellas denotes the geographic regions of Greece and Cyprus.
 During the 1970’s and 1980s, the impact of the damage imagery restricted mainly among adolescence Greek Australians of the second generation, created even a self-hatred psychology for some of them, compelling them to cease or even reject their Hellenic identity, paving the way to assimilation.
Media and Newsletters
The Australian Institute for Macedonian Studies over the last 25 years published and circulated two major informative bulletins and newsletters:
(i) The Macedonian Bulletin (1991-1995)
(ii) The Macedonian View Periodical (1988-1990 and 1999- )
Both publications were administered by an editorial committee headed by the Secretary of the AIMS, Panos Gogidis. The Macedonian Bulletin was also supported by a team of devoted professionals including Theofila Kokovitis, Roussa Rombolis, Eleni Bachtsevanos, Magda Simonis and Paul Kosmidis. The Macedonian View Periodical was published with the assistance of Nicholas Katris. Kalliroy Katsigiannis and Theophani Karabatsas.